Jellyfish Are Coming to the Italian Kitchen

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Jellyfish Are Coming to the Italian Kitchen


This text was initially revealed in Hakai Journal.

On a snowy January morning in 2022, I walked into Duo, an unique little restaurant within the coronary heart of the southern Italian city of Lecce, carrying a polystyrene field crammed with two frozen, plate-size jellyfish. With me was Antonella Leone, a senior researcher on the Italian Nationwide Analysis Council’s Institute of Sciences of Meals Manufacturing, who held an authorization letter for Chef Fabiano Viva to legally deal with the ocean creatures. Viva awaited us on the restaurant’s entrance, greeted us with a hearty handshake, and took the cooler. Inside minutes, his assistant was defrosting the jellyfish underneath the faucet. Viva laced up his white apron, crammed a pot with water, and ignited the range.

Leone is a part of a small group of scientists who’ve been finding out Mediterranean jellyfish for the previous 12 years. For the previous seven, they’ve concerned cooks, testing methods to get most people fascinated by consuming the marine invertebrate.

“The concept of consuming a jellyfish by no means crossed our minds, as a result of we might solely see one each now and again,” Leone defined. Nevertheless, as a number of species of native and alien jellyfish grew to become ample—corresponding to in 2014, when a jellyfish bloom noticed 400 tonnes of the barrel jellyfish per sq. kilometer carpeting the large Gulf of Taranto—Leone questioned what they may do with them.

However persuading Italians to eat jellyfish is like engaging them to attempt pineapple on pizza—not a easy process. Southern Italians eat octopus, sea urchin, and different sea creatures, however jellyfish are largely ignored. Promoting jellyfish for human consumption is prohibited within the European Union, as regulators nonetheless don’t think about the ocean creature a secure, marketable meals on account of historic lack of curiosity in them as a meals supply—which is why Leone arrived at Duo with a permission letter in hand.

Security issues round jellyfish don’t appear to be an issue in China, the place jellyfish have been on the menu for nearly two millennia. (A favourite is an appetizer of chilled jellyfish seasoned with darkish vinegar, sugar, soy sauce, chicken-stock powder, and sesame oil.) A latest estimate discovered that 19 nations harvest as much as 1 million tonnes of the gelatinous sea dweller, contributing to a worldwide business price about $160 million.

Partnering with forward-looking cooks corresponding to Viva, Leone and her staff started researching in 2015 methods to make jellyfish tasty and secure for Mediterranean menus. As ocean fish shares proceed to deplete at alarming charges, whereas jellyfish appear to thrive, increasingly individuals are asking if consuming jellyfish will successfully mitigate the jellyfish drawback, and if they may turn out to be a sustainable and secure supply of meals. However can jellyfish turn out to be a meals for all?


Jellyfish are in a broad group of aquatic animals that marine biologists seek advice from as “gelatinous zooplankton.” Some, just like the extremely venomous Irukandji field jellyfish, primarily discovered off the coast of Australia, can have a bell as small as a cereal flake; others, like the large lion’s mane jellyfish, have tentacles as much as 36 meters lengthy. Jellyfish are an essential a part of marine ecosystems and function meals for 124 fish species and 34 different animals, such because the leatherback sea turtle.

However all isn’t properly within the jellyfish world. Because the flip of this century, scientists have witnessed a worrying enhance in jellyfish populations in varied components of the world. Based on Lucas Brotz, a researcher who has lengthy studied jellyfish on the Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries on the College of British Columbia, it’s not simple to know the explanations behind the phenomenon.

“Not all jellyfish are rising in every single place, however we do see a type of sustained main enhance in lots of areas around the globe,” Brotz says. And myriad causes could possibly be driving this alteration, amongst them alien jellyfish species being launched into new areas and vary enlargement as local weather change and warming waters favor some species over others.

The jellyfish enhance is being felt significantly acutely in locations such because the Mediterranean Sea and alongside the coast of Japan. Hordes of jellyfish have broken fish farms, clogged energy vegetation, capsized fishing boats as they’ve weighed down nets, and upended tourism by making waters unsafe for swimming. And their presence can have an effect on creatures they share the ocean with too.

“Think about [something the size of] the most important oil tanker on this planet touring alongside the Mediterranean coasts to Israel, consuming all of the plankton,” says Stefano Piraino, Leone’s husband and a marine biologist and jellyfish skilled on the College of Salento, in Lecce, explaining how large blooms of jellyfish can hog all of the plankton that different planktivores want.

Seeing the brand new availability of jellyfish within the Mediterranean, Piraino joined Leone in her quest to seek out attainable culinary makes use of for jellyfish.


Again at Duo, Viva slipped on latex gloves and thoroughly lifted the Rhizostoma pulmo jellyfish from under the working faucet. They had been nonetheless a bit frozen—fairly not like the dried jellyfish usually utilized in Jap delicacies, which have to be rehydrated earlier than use. Viva put the jellies right into a pot of boiling water and began stirring.

When Leone first started finding out how jellyfish could possibly be used for meals or meals components—and the way they could possibly be preserved for later use—she stumbled upon one predominant drawback. The first technique of preserving jellyfish, as perfected in Asia, was to dehydrate them utilizing the chemical compound alum. However, she mentioned, consuming aluminum could be poisonous, and alum-treated jellyfish typically don’t meet the European Meals Security Authority’s requirements. So Leone and her colleagues got down to devise a brand new and unhazardous means of desiccating edible jellyfish.

Her staff overcame the drying problem by utilizing calcium salts as a substitute of alum and went on to experiment with dried, contemporary, and frozen jellies, turning them into mousse, meringue, seasonings, and thickeners.

The magic of turning gelatinous macrozooplankton into meals and meals merchandise occurs in Leone’s lab on the Institute of Sciences of Meals Manufacturing, the place she and her staff of seven run their experiments. A protracted metal testing desk, with two cabinets of clear jars and scales at its middle, separates the expansive room. Inside an industrial fridge relaxation racks of take a look at tubes containing jellyfish extracts.

However it’s one factor to do analysis in a lab and one other to persuade Italians to contemplate changing fish with jellyfish in soup. Based on a 2020 research led by Luisa Torri, a professor of meals science and know-how on the College of Gastronomic Sciences of Pollenzo, there could be some hope for acceptance. The research surveyed 1,445 individuals on their perspective towards the thought of consuming jellyfish, considering traits corresponding to age, behavioral habits, and mouthfeel. Based on the outcomes, younger, well-traveled individuals with greater training ranges and sensitivity to the setting usually tend to eat jellyfish.

I match that class, so when Viva invited me to take a whiff of the white foam effervescent quickly on the range, I attempted to maintain an open thoughts.

I closed my eyes and breathed deeply. “It smells like oysters,” I informed him.

“It is advisable disconnect your mind from what you already know,” Viva replied. “It is advisable detach your self from the meals in your reminiscence.”

Is the important thing to accepting an uncommon meals making new meals recollections? If that’s the case, we’ll have to discover a technique to get jellyfish from the ocean to dinner tables.


Along with serving to to cope with future seas filled with jellyfish, fishing for these creatures has been touted as a means to assist small-scale European fishers, who’re scuffling with low fish shares.

“A supply of earnings? That might be nice!” says Rocco Cazzato, a sixth-generation small-scale fisher from Tricase Porto, on the thought of fishing jellyfish. “However I might by no means eat them, not even when it’s the very last thing left on this planet to eat.”

Cazzato recounts the ache of pulling in fishing nets crowded with jellyfish that he couldn’t promote. He says that if jellyfish had been in demand regionally, just like the generally consumed scorpionfish, these jellyfish within the internet would assist small fishers like him make ends meet.

Though Leone is working to fill the knowledge void, figuring out which jellyfish are edible and secure for consumption remains to be a query few researchers are tasked with answering. Based on Brotz, whereas many alternative jellyfish varieties are rising worldwide, solely a handful of them are most popular for human consumption. And simply because they appear to be extra ample doesn’t imply that fishing them shall be a panacea. The title of a 2016 paper co-written by Brotz says all of it: “We must always not assume that fishing jellyfish will remedy our jellyfish drawback.”

The paper advises warning: Jellyfish are understudied, and the consequences of eradicating them from the ecosystem, even when they’re in extra, are unknown and probably damaging. Some jellyfish, as an example, act as nurseries for juvenile fish, and jellyfish could be each predator and prey in meals chains.

Silvestro Greco, a marine biologist and the analysis director on the Anton Dohrn Zoological Station, echoes the priority that fishing isn’t essentially the best way to fight jellyfish blooms. He fears that when industrial jellyfish extraction begins, fast depletion may need surprising penalties for native marine environments. Within the early 2000s, as an example, a portion of the fishing fleet within the Gulf of California, Mexico, diverted its efforts to harvesting jellyfish. Fishers and processing-plant staff rapidly profited from the brand new market however overfished the useful resource, resulting in the speedy depletion of jellyfish.

Nonetheless, some fishers are poised to launch if a fishery opens—there may be already curiosity from Asia about fishing jellyfish within the Mediterranean. However even with curiosity from fishers, if there’s no market, there’s no level.


Based on Leone, getting jellyfish to the plenty requires an entrepreneur prepared to speculate the a number of thousand euros wanted to request that the European Meals Security Authority settle for jellyfish as edible meals on the market, permitting them to be legally bought in fish markets and eating places.

Leone believes that she and her staff have gathered the scientific analysis to assist such an utility to EFSA, and that some entrepreneurs have proven curiosity. It’s solely a matter of time earlier than some species of jellyfish make the record of authorised European meals, she mentioned, and she or he’s eager to dealer the divide amongst fishers, markets, and cooks.

Creating this market might assist artisanal fishers, those most affected by jellyfish blooms, Leone mentioned: “They arrive again with nets filled with jellyfish and three fish inside. If jellyfish would turn out to be accepted edible meals, they may promote it as sea merchandise like others.”

Leone first focused curious cooks—ones with out preconceptions who had been keen to simply accept a problem—in 2015, and so they grew to become essential staff members. Leone and her staff had been a part of the EU-funded GoJelly challenge, which seemed into new makes use of for jellyfish—together with in fertilizers, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals, and for snaring microplastics. Membership meant that Leone might commonly convey Viva and different cooks jellyfish to experiment with of their kitchens and discover methods to make the ocean creature appetizing. Through the years, Viva has tried the jellyfish pickled and dehydrated like chips, and as an ingredient in soups and pasta sauces.

Probably the most important problem encountered by Pasquale Palamaro, the chief chef of the Michelin-star restaurant Indaco, on the island of Ischia, was the drop in weight because the jellyfish cooked.

Jellyfish are 95 % water and a small share of proteins, and when the animal dies, it loses a lot of that water. To keep away from this, Palamaro believes they need to be consumed contemporary inside a couple of hours of harvest, or saved safely frozen or preserved with the calcium-salt method that Leone developed.

Palamaro boils the Pelagia jellyfish from the Mediterranean for one minute, marinates it in citruses for an hour, after which seasons it with pumpkin-seed oil earlier than serving it with quinoa. Gennaro Esposito, the chef of the Michelin-star restaurant Torre del Saracino, in Vico Equense, prefers to pair the jellyfish with marinated cucumbers, chili kefir, and lettuce paste. Leone has collected the extra profitable recipes of those cooks and others within the freely out there European Jellyfish Cookbook.

However not all cooks are satisfied of the jellyfish’s culinary potential. In 2017, Greco, who can also be a meals scientist and an avid prepare dinner, fried 50 kilograms of Pelagia jellyfish on the Gradual Fish convention in Genoa, Italy, to create consciousness in regards to the speedy rise in jellyfish numbers within the Mediterranean.

“It was a hit,” Greco says, “however as a result of they had been fried. The whole lot fried is nice.”

He believes jellyfish don’t have an fascinating texture and don’t make a compelling case for culinary indulgence. All in all, he doesn’t consider that jellyfish shall be rapidly adopted by cuisines that don’t historically use them.

However based on Leone, jellyfish right this moment are in the identical state of affairs as tomatoes within the sixteenth century. Tomatoes, now a key ingredient in conventional Mediterranean delicacies, had been unknown earlier than being introduced over from the Americas across the 1550s. At first, they had been considered poisonous and unhealthy. Nevertheless, probably because of forward-looking cooks or just due to necessity, tomatoes started showing on pizzas and in parmigiana and pasta sauce, in the end turning into a part of the Mediterranean weight loss plan.

Whether or not jellyfish will take an analogous trajectory and turn out to be accepted in Western markets is difficult to say, however lots of our favored seafoods are declining or have already collapsed, Brotz explains: “We could get to a degree the place there is no such thing as a different seafood out there.”


Again within the kitchen at Duo, Viva turned one of many two jellyfish right into a soup, including tomato sauce, olive oil, a garlic clove, and a pinch of parsley. He supplied me a serving.

I noticed the turgid tentacles and a part of the cap floating within the orange liquid, and my abdomen turned. The primary spoonful of broth went down rapidly. It tasted like a scrumptious—and fishy—tomato soup. Then I looked for a bit of the jellyfish. I hesitated, then slurped it up.

It felt like taking a gulp of the ocean itself, the flavour of the jellyfish unfurling in my mouth with the power of a tsunami. The feel jogged my memory of calamari or a bit of fats from a cooked steak. As I chewed, attempting to repress my instinctive disgust, I considered cooked tripe. I swallowed.

I checked out Viva and mentioned, actually, “It tastes like the ocean!” He smiled, agreeing.

As I took a couple of extra well mannered spoonfuls, the phrases of Esposito, the chef of Torre del Saracino, got here to thoughts. He factors out that jellyfish carry a stigma, however that the intuition to keep away from them could be unlearned. By delicacies, “we remodel a concern and a dread right into a style, which is best,” he says.

I replicate that my hesitancy could be a results of cultural heritage—this meals is as unfamiliar to me as a tomato was to my ancestors greater than 500 years in the past—as Viva prepares the opposite jellyfish. He coats it in flour and deep-fries it in vegetable oil.

This time, it’s crunchy and crispy—like a French fry. And naturally, it tastes nice.

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